MAXIMAL HEART RATE ASSESSMENT IN RECREATIONAL FOOTBALL PLAYERS. A STUDY INVOLVING A MULTIPLE TESTING APPROACH.
This study considered which of the usual field tests could be valid to register the maximum heart rate (HRmax) in soccer players. To do this, 66 amateur players performed, on different days: an incremental VO2max test for VO2max in the laboratory, both Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 1 (YYIE1) and level 2 (YYIE2), a Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YYIR1 ) and 2 - 4 matches per player (45 min, 7 vs 7 in 43x27m: 83m2 / player). Taking the HRmax as the highest value reached in any of the tests, the percentage of players who reached their HRmax in the different tests was: 73% in YYIE1, 24% in YYIE2, 18% in YYIR1, 17% in TT and 30 % in games with reduced games.
TAKE HOME MESSAGES
- - Despite what is assumed (and that the cardiorespiratory RPE and global RPE are very high), only the 17% of the players reach their HRmax in an incremental test in the laboratory. Therefore, it is not recommended to set HRmax as the heart rate reached in it.
- The Yo-Yo intermittent Endurance test Level 1 (YYIE1) seems much better for this task. At least to corroborate the HRmax reached in the incremental test.
- It is interesting to have a real measurement of the HRmax since, its value can be used as control of the internal load of the players in the training sessions, or to evaluate the intensity of a certain task.
- It is also interesting to have a real measurement of the HRmax since its variation allows to anticipate overtraining processes.
PHYSICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES DURING THE STOP-BALL RULE DURING SMALL-SIDED GAMES IN SOCCER PLAYERS
Halouani J, Ghattasi K, Bouzid MA, Rosemann T, Nikolaidis PT, Chtourou H, and Knechtle B. Physical and Physiological responses during the stop-ball rule during small-sided games in soccer players. Sports. May - 2019.
In the present study the physical and heart rate (HR) responses to the SSG-SB (small-sided characterized by score a goal stopping the ball in a 1-m wide zone behind the end line) and to the SSG-SG (small-sided game characterized by score a goal in small goals placed at the center of the end line) have been compared using the same number of players (i.e., 4 vs. 4), pitch dimensions (i.e., 20x25 m), playing time, and recovery (i.e., 4x4 min with 2 min recovery between sets).
TAKE HOME MESSAGES
- HR (HR and %HRmax) was significantly higher during the SSG-SB than the SSG-SG for the 4vs4 format (180 vs. 173 bpm; 89.68 vs. 85.83%, respectively).
- Both the total distance and the total distance covered in high-speed running was greater during the SSG-SB compared to the SSG-SG (2580 vs 2230 m, 63.1 vs 47.7 m, respectively).
- The number of accelerations and decelerations (>3 m/s2) was higher during the SSG-SB than the SSG-SG (acceleration: 15.6 vs. 12.5 m/s2 and deceleration: 17.3 vs. 14.4 m/s2, respectively).
SSG-SB induced higher physical and HR values than the SSG-SG. These findings could be explained mainly by the larger area that the defensive and the attacking players must to cover in the SSG-SB (“there is less tactics and more running”).
CAM MORPHOLOGY IN YOUNG MALE FOOTBALL PLAYERS MOSTLY DEVELOPS BEFORE PROXIMAL FEMORAL GROWTH PLATE CLOSURE: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY WITH 5-YEAR FOLLOW-UP
Van Klij, P., Heijboer, M. P., Ginai, A. Z., Verhaar, J. A. N., Waarsing, J. H., & Agricola, R. (2018). Cam morphology in young male football players mostly develops before proximal femoral growth plate closure: a prospective study with 5-yearfollow-up. British Journal of Sports Medicine, bjsports–2018–099328.
Cam morphology of the hip is related with femoroacetabular impingement. To study the origin of this deformity, 49 academy male football players were studied by anteroposterior and frog-leg lateral Rx hip views through a 5-year follow-up.
TAKE HOME MESSAGES
- The Cam morphology based on visual criteria was found in 54.2% of the players at the beginning of the study and in 81.6% at 5 years of follow-up.
- A strong association was found between the development of Cam morphology and the open status of the growth plate (see two examples in the Figure)
The practice of football by young players with open growth plates result in a very high prevalence of hip cam deformity, which in turn predisposes to femoracetabular impingement and possible future hip joint damage. Football science should find methods to decrease this undesirable effect of football playing for young players.